1) A rotating cloud of gas and dust is getting dense more and more during time, until the pressure in the center of it becomes so strong, that nuclear fusion from hydrogen to helium starts.
Copyright F. Hornischer - Credits to Hansen Planetarium, Salt Lake City, USA.
2) The sun begins to shine, the planets develop in an orbit about 10 billion years after the big bang.
3) Planets of heavy rock and of gas develop and cool down during time. Credits to nationalgeographic.
4) Today, 15 billion years after the big bang we see our solar system with the nine planets as it is now.
5) After about 5 billions of years from now, our sun expands over the whole planet system, it devours its planets, nuclear fuel is used up, sun becomes a red giant. Credits to physics.uc.edu.
Our sun will loose its outer material without supernova-explosion, also suns with the remaining mass till to 1,4 sun-masses after their time of burning. A sun with the remaining mass lower than 3,2 times mass of our sun will become a neutron- star, with more remaining mass become a black hole. Credits to physics.unr.ede
6) During an explosion sun hurls most of its material into space.
7) After one more billion of years the sun becomes a white dwarf and cools down more and more. Credits to physics.uc.edu