Timelines Psychology of Humans
Understand human development
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Human Evolution 2
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Psychology of development
The theory of development says, the individual changes during time. The child’s structure of thinking is developed dealing continuous with its social environment.
From birth till the 2nd year of life inborn reflexes become patterns of acting. Things exist also when they are not seen.
From the 2nd till the 7th year of life a child develops its language by symbolizing environment and imitation, a child cannot see a matter in the perspective of other persons.
From the 7th till the 11th year of life a child develops concrete processes of thinking and overcomes its one-dimensional view of the world.
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With the 11th /12th year of life a child develops abstract thinking, a moral development
starts by reward and punishment and a process of getting sense being successful in what is
possible for a child.
The process of development is connected with the process of education. We call it the
theory of self- process and a lifelong development.
From the 11th till the 18th year of life we talk about youth. 10/11 before puberty, in the
age of 12-14 all relationships in life change.
Magda and her teddies
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From 21 till 25 develop young grown ups, a social group with skillness and performance in
the foreground, unconventionally dressed and with unconventionally lifestyle. The border
between youth and grown ups can reach till to the 40th year of life, with youthful
emphasized environment and great flexibility. Orientation for profession starts in youth
age, the development of identity is determined by the social relationships in the family,
the group of the same age and the same thinking in the environment of school and starting
a profession. It is the period of storm and push, the individual mental development
corresponds to the development of men during evolution, it is the growing of the young
people into the cultural world of the grown ups. Human education goes on until the 25th
year of life.
Corresponding to the educational chances young people have a longer or shorter puberty and
are introduced into the process of work. Antiauthoritarian education is giving more
possibilities of development. During puberty it comes to physical changes because of
sexual maturity, it starts a growing process with two years difference between boys and girls, social behavior changes, a change because of hormones starts, and the secondary features of sex start to form.
Girls will begin puberty at 12 or 13, and boys will begin puberty around 14 or 15. At the age of 18 the final height is reached, first at the head, then the hands, feet, and lastly the body. There is an internal conflict because of seeing oneself as a grown up and getting noticed by others as still immature. Some will mature quickly while others will mature later. Sometimes the cognitive, emotional and social development is not parallel to the physical development. The physical and mental acceleration will take place between the ages of 17 and 23.
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Sexual activity goes from conscious deviating the norm to strengthening self- education and norm- orientation to belong to the world of grown ups. Young people turn away from their parents and turn to "peer-groups". The childish behavior of connection slackens, while young people critically ask about the values and way of life of their families, and the connection to it gets a new form.
Young people want independence. There are protests, provocation and arguments. Young people will most likely consult their parents when making life decisions. In general the shifting of opinions will be small. Free time is spent in the peer group. There social behavior and patterns of connections are tested in critically distance to the surrounding society. Experiences are exchanged and performances are measured. Here young people have the acceptance they cannot find with their parents any longer. Therefore the peer group is an important fact of socialization.
A family cannot educate a child without being also educated by it. Family should be good
for the child to help to develop social interaction. Young people accept their body, have
connections to people of the same age and of both sex and are emotionally independent. Now it is important to choose a profession, the preparation to marriage and family, and to get
competence as a citizen connected with social- responsible behavior. During adolescence
new chances develop for creative development of human community.
The part of the parent is to work toward engagement for social connections that strengthens identity when meeting others similar to their own individuality. Parents deepen their interests and overcome their egocentricity with the engagement with others. In partnership it comes to intimacy, physical and mental proximity and confidential communication either between people of the same interests or of different positions. The same area of living, the same school, same training, hobbies, developing together, and the same literature or language leads to confidential partnerships
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Couples start their interaction in communication and acting. So their partnership develops and their own development goes on. Love is the exchange of need- satisfaction of each other, cool appreciation of each other with sympathy and empathy, understanding and confidence. In true love taking and giving are the same. Children are desired to give sense to ones own life. During partnership there is a new orientation, dipping into the baby- world changes the partnership and now school with be the new rooms of behavior to be processed.
Developing of personality is a lifelong process. The more you get cognition and
orientation, the more can happen in your personal development. There are 5 phases of life
1) Child - 14 identifies with in family and school and tries to play a part for the 1st time.
2) 15-25 thinking about abilities
3) 25-30 profession for life
4) 31-44 stabilization
5) 45-65 preserving and keeping
After 65 the view becomes different. The ability of learning still exists. It is also important to support the activity of elder people. In old age the tempo of thinking slows down, but elder people have better intellectual performance because of their life experience, they can think about many aspects of a problem. Life is to be appreciated even at a later age.
Translated from a German book by Straub/ Kempf/ Werbich,
professors of psychology.
Summary copyright F.Hornischer
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